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Create and attach additional block storage disks to your Linux-based Lightsail instances

Last updated: November 14, 2017

You can create and attach additional block storage disks for your Lightsail instances. After you create additional disks, you need to connect to your Linux/Unix-based Lightsail instance and format and mount the disk.

This topic shows you how to create a new disk and attach it using Lightsail. It also describes how to connect to your Linux/Unix-based instance using SSH, so that you can format and mount your attached disk.

If you have a Windows Server-based instance, see the following topic instead: Creating and attaching block storage disks to your Windows Server instance in Amazon Lightsail.

Step 1: Create a new disk and attach it to your instance

  1. On the Lightsail home page, choose Storage.

  2. Choose Create disk.

  3. Choose the AWS Region and Availability Zone where your Lightsail instance is located.

  4. Choose a size and a unique name, and then choose Create.

    After a few seconds, your disk is created and you're on the new disk management page.

  5. Choose your instance from the list, and then choose Attach to attach the new disk to your instance.

    Choosing your instance from the drop-down list and attaching the disk to the
 instance

Step 2: Connect to your instance to format and mount the disk

  1. After you create and attach your disk, go back to the instance management page in Lightsail.

    The Connect tab is displayed by default.

    The Connect tab of the instance management page
  2. Choose Connect using SSH to connect to your instance.

  3. Type the following:

    lsblk

    You should see output like the following.

    NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
    xvda 202:0 0 80G 0 disk
    └─xvda1 202:1 0 80G 0 part /
    xvdf 202:80 0 64G 0 disk

    The output of lsblk removes the /dev/ prefix from disk paths.

  4. Determine whether to create a file system on the disk. New disks are raw block devices, and you must create a file system on them before you can mount and use them. Disks that have been restored from snapshots likely have a file system on them already. If you create a new file system on top of an existing file system, the operation overwrites your data. Use the following command to list special information, such as file system type.

    sudo file -s /dev/xvdf

    You should see the following output on a brand new disk.

    /dev/xvdf: data

    If you see output like the following, it means that your disk already has a file system.

    /dev/xvda1: Linux rev 1.0 ext4 filesystem data, UUID=1701d228-e1bd-4094-a14c-12345EXAMPLE (needs journal recovery) (extents) (large files) (huge files)
  5. Use the following command to create an ext4 file system on the disk. Substitute the device name (such as /dev/xvdf) for device_name. Depending on the requirements of your application or the limitations of your operating system, you can choose a different file system type, such as ext3 or XFS.

    Important

    This step assumes that you're mounting an empty disk. If you're mounting a disk that already has data on it (for example, a disk that was restored from a snapshot), don't use mkfs before mounting the disk. Instead, skip to step 6 of this procedure and create a mount point. Otherwise, you'll format the disk and delete the existing data.

    sudo mkfs -t ext4 device_name

    You should see output like the following.

    mke2fs 1.42.9 (4-Feb-2014)
    Filesystem label=
    OS type: Linux
    Block size=4096 (log=2)
    Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
    Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
    4194304 inodes, 16777216 blocks
    838860 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
    First data block=0
    Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
    512 block groups
    32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
    8192 inodes per group
    Superblock backups stored on blocks:
    32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
    4096000, 7962624, 11239424
    
    Allocating group tables: done
    Writing inode tables: done
    Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
    Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
  6. Use the following command to create a mount point directory for the disk. The mount point is where the disk is located in the file system tree and where you read files from and write files to after you mount the disk. Substitute a location for mount_point, such as /data.

    sudo mkdir mount_point
  7. You can verify that the disk now has a file system on it by typing the following command.

    sudo file -s /dev/xvdf

    Instead of /dev/xvdf: data, you'll see output similar to the following.

    /dev/xvdf: Linux rev 1.0 ext4 filesystem data, UUID=0ee83fdf-e370-442e-ae38-12345EXAMPLE (extents) (large files) (huge files)
  8. Finally, mount the disk by typing the following command.

    sudo mount device_name mount_point

    Review the file permissions of your new disk mount to ensure that your users and applications can write to the disk. For more information about file permissions, see Making an Amazon EBS Volume Available for Use in the Amazon EC2 User Guide.

Step 3: Mount the disk every time you reboot your instance

You probably want to mount this disk every time you reboot your Lightsail instance. If you don't, this step is optional for you.

  1. To mount this disk on every system reboot, add an entry for the device to the /etc/fstab file.

    Create a backup of your /etc/fstab file that you can use if you accidentally destroy or delete this file while you're editing it.

    sudo cp /etc/fstab /etc/fstab.orig
  2. Open the /etc/fstab file using any text editor, such as vim.

    You need to type sudo before opening the file so that you can save changes.

  3. Add a new line to the end of the file for your disk using the following format.

    device_name mount_point file_system_type fs_mntops fs_freq fs_passno

    For example, your new line might look something like this.

    /dev/xvdf /data ext4 defaults, nofail 0 2
  4. Save the file and exit your text editor.