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Access log format for a bucket in the Amazon Lightsail object storage service

Last updated: November 1, 2021

Access logging provides detailed records for the requests that are made to a bucket in the Amazon Lightsail object storage service. You can use access logs for security and access audits, or learn about your customer base. This section describes the format and other details about access log files. For more information about logging basics, see Access logging for buckets in the Amazon Lightsail object storage service.

Access log files consist of a sequence of newline-delimited log records. Each log record represents one request and consists of space-delimited fields.

The following is an example log consisting of five log records.

79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be awsexamplebucket1 [06/Feb/2019:00:00:38 +0000] 192.0.2.3 79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be 3E57427F3EXAMPLE REST.GET.VERSIONING - "GET /awsexamplebucket1?versioning HTTP/1.1" 200 - 113 - 7 - "-" "S3Console/0.4" - s9lzHYrFp76ZVxRcpX9+5cjAnEH2ROuNkd2BHfIa6UkFVdtjf5mKR3/eTPFvsiP/XV/VLi31234= SigV2 ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 AuthHeader awsexamplebucket1.s3.us-west-1.amazonaws.com TLSV1.1
79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be awsexamplebucket1 [06/Feb/2019:00:00:38 +0000] 192.0.2.3 79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be 891CE47D2EXAMPLE REST.GET.LOGGING_STATUS - "GET /awsexamplebucket1?logging HTTP/1.1" 200 - 242 - 11 - "-" "S3Console/0.4" - 9vKBE6vMhrNiWHZmb2L0mXOcqPGzQOI5XLnCtZNPxev+Hf+7tpT6sxDwDty4LHBUOZJG96N1234= SigV2 ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 AuthHeader awsexamplebucket1.s3.us-west-1.amazonaws.com TLSV1.1
79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be awsexamplebucket1 [06/Feb/2019:00:00:38 +0000] 192.0.2.3 79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be A1206F460EXAMPLE REST.GET.BUCKETPOLICY - "GET /awsexamplebucket1?policy HTTP/1.1" 404 NoSuchBucketPolicy 297 - 38 - "-" "S3Console/0.4" - BNaBsXZQQDbssi6xMBdBU2sLt+Yf5kZDmeBUP35sFoKa3sLLeMC78iwEIWxs99CRUrbS4n11234= SigV2 ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 AuthHeader awsexamplebucket1.s3.us-west-1.amazonaws.com TLSV1.1
79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be awsexamplebucket1 [06/Feb/2019:00:01:00 +0000] 192.0.2.3 79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be 7B4A0FABBEXAMPLE REST.GET.VERSIONING - "GET /awsexamplebucket1?versioning HTTP/1.1" 200 - 113 - 33 - "-" "S3Console/0.4" - Ke1bUcazaN1jWuUlPJaxF64cQVpUEhoZKEG/hmy/gijN/I1DeWqDfFvnpybfEseEME/u7ME1234= SigV2 ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 AuthHeader awsexamplebucket1.s3.us-west-1.amazonaws.com TLSV1.1
79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be awsexamplebucket1 [06/Feb/2019:00:01:57 +0000] 192.0.2.3 79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be DD6CC733AEXAMPLE REST.PUT.OBJECT s3-dg.pdf "PUT /awsexamplebucket1/s3-dg.pdf HTTP/1.1" 200 - - 4406583 41754 28 "-" "S3Console/0.4" - 10S62Zv81kBW7BB6SX4XJ48o6kpcl6LPwEoizZQQxJd5qDSCTLX0TgS37kYUBKQW3+bPdrg1234= SigV4 ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA AuthHeader awsexamplebucket1.s3.us-west-1.amazonaws.com TLSV1.1

Note

Any log record field can be set to (dash) to indicate that the data was unknown or unavailable, or that the field was not applicable to the request.

Contents

Log record fields

The following list describes the log record fields.

Access Point ARN (Amazon Resource Name)

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the access point of the request. If access point ARN is malformed or not used, the field will contain a '-'. For more information on access points, see Using access points. For more information on ARNs, see the topic on Amazon Resource Name (ARN) in the AWS General Reference.

Example entry

arn:aws:s3:us-east-1:123456789012:accesspoint/example-AP

Bucket Owner

The canonical user ID of the owner of the source bucket. The canonical user ID is another form of the AWS account ID. For more information about the canonical user ID, see AWS account identifiers in the AWS General Reference. For information about how to find the canonical user ID for your account, see Finding the canonical user ID for your AWS account.

Example entry

79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be

Bucket

The name of the bucket that the request was processed against. If the system receives a malformed request and cannot determine the bucket, the request will not appear in any access log.

Example entry

awsexamplebucket1

Time

The time at which the request was received; these dates and times are in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The format, using strftime() terminology, is as follows: [%d/%b/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z]

Example entry

[06/Feb/2019:00:00:38 +0000]

Remote IP

The apparent internet address of the requester. Intermediate proxies and firewalls might obscure the actual address of the machine making the request.

Example entry

192.0.2.3

Requester

The canonical user ID of the requester, or a - for unauthenticated requests. If the requester was an IAM user, this field returns the requester's IAM user name along with the AWS root account that the IAM user belongs to. This identifier is the same one used for access control purposes.

Example entry

79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be

Request ID

A string generated by Lightsail to uniquely identify each request.

Example entry

3E57427F33A59F07

Operation

The operation listed here is declared as SOAP.operation, REST.HTTP_method.resource_type, WEBSITE.HTTP_method.resource_type, or BATCH.DELETE.OBJECT.

Example entry

REST.PUT.OBJECT

Key

The "key" part of the request, URL encoded, or "-" if the operation does not take a key parameter.

Example entry

/photos/2019/08/puppy.jpg

Request-URI

The Request-URI part of the HTTP request message.

Example Entry

"GET /awsexamplebucket1/photos/2019/08/puppy.jpg?x-foo=bar HTTP/1.1"

HTTP status

The numeric HTTP status code of the response.

Example entry

200

Error Code

The Amazon S3 Error code, or "-" if no error occurred.

Example entry

NoSuchBucket

Bytes Sent

The number of response bytes sent, excluding HTTP protocol overhead, or "-" if zero.

Example entry

2662992

Object Size

The total size of the object in question.

Example entry

3462992

Total Time

The number of milliseconds the request was in flight from the bucket's perspective. This value is measured from the time your request is received to the time that the last byte of the response is sent. Measurements made from the client's perspective might be longer due to network latency.

Example entry

70

Turn-Around Time

The number of milliseconds that Lightsail spent processing your request. This value is measured from the time the last byte of your request was received until the time the first byte of the response was sent.

Example entry

10

Referer

The value of the HTTP Referer header, if present. HTTP user-agents (for example, browsers) typically set this header to the URL of the linking or embedding page when making a request.

Example entry

"http://www.amazon.com/webservices"

User-Agent

The value of the HTTP User-Agent header.

Example entry

"curl/7.15.1"

Version Id

The version ID in the request, or - if the operation does not take a versionId parameter.

Example entry

3HL4kqtJvjVBH40Nrjfkd

Host Id

The x-amz-id-2 or Lightsail extended request ID.

Example entry

s9lzHYrFp76ZVxRcpX9+5cjAnEH2ROuNkd2BHfIa6UkFVdtjf5mKR3/eTPFvsiP/XV/VLi31234=

Signature Version

The signature version, SigV2 or SigV4, that was used to authenticate the request or a - for unauthenticated requests.

Example entry

SigV2

Cipher Suite

The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cipher that was negotiated for HTTPS request or a - for HTTP.

Example entry

ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256

Authentication Type

The type of request authentication used, AuthHeader for authentication headers, QueryString for query string (pre-signed URL) or a - for unauthenticated requests.

Example entry

AuthHeader

Host Header

The endpoint used to connect to Lightsail.

Example entry

s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com

TLS version

The Transport Layer Security (TLS) version negotiated by the client. The value is one of following: TLSv1, TLSv1.1, TLSv1.2; or - if TLS wasn't used.

Example entry

TLSv1.2

Additional logging for copy operations

A copy operation involves a GET and a PUT. For that reason, we log two records when performing a copy operation. The previous section describes the fields related to the PUT part of the operation. The following list describes the fields in the record that relate to the GET part of the copy operation.

Bucket Owner

The canonical user ID of the bucket that stores the object being copied. The canonical user ID is another form of the AWS account ID. For more information about the canonical user ID, see AWS account identifiers in the AWS General Reference. For information about how to find the canonical user ID for your account, see Finding the canonical user ID for your AWS account.

Example entry

79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be

Bucket

The name of the bucket that stores the object being copied.

Example entry

awsexamplebucket1

Time

The time at which the request was received; these dates and times are in Coordinated Universal time (UTC). The format, using strftime() terminology, is as follows: [%d/%B/%Y:%H:%M:%S %z]

Example entry

[06/Feb/2019:00:00:38 +0000]

Remote IP

The apparent internet address of the requester. Intermediate proxies and firewalls might obscure the actual address of the machine making the request.

Example entry

192.0.2.3

Requester

The canonical user ID of the requester, or a - for unauthenticated requests. If the requester was an IAM user, this field will return the requester's IAM user name along with the AWS root account that the IAM user belongs to. This identifier is the same one used for access control purposes.

Example entry

79a59df900b949e55d96a1e698fbacedfd6e09d98eacf8f8d5218e7cd47ef2be

Request ID

A string generated by Lightsail to uniquely identify each request.

Example entry

3E57427F33A59F07

Operation

The operation listed here is declared as SOAP.operation, REST.HTTP_method.resource_type, WEBSITE.HTTP_method.resource_type, or BATCH.DELETE.OBJECT.

Example entry

REST.COPY.OBJECT_GET

Key

The "key" of the object being copied or "-" if the operation does not take a key parameter.

Example entry

/photos/2019/08/puppy.jpg

Request-URI

The Request-URI part of the HTTP request message.

Example entry

"GET /awsexamplebucket1/photos/2019/08/puppy.jpg?x-foo=bar"

HTTP status

The numeric HTTP status code of the GET portion of the copy operation.

Example entry

200

Error Code

The Amazon S3 Error code, of the GET portion of the copy operation or - if no error occurred.

Example entry

NoSuchBucket

Bytes Sent

The number of response bytes sent, excluding HTTP protocol overhead, or "-" if zero.

Example entry

2662992

Object Size

The total size of the object in question.

Example entry

3462992

Total Time

The number of milliseconds the request was in flight from the bucket's perspective. This value is measured from the time your request is received to the time that the last byte of the response is sent. Measurements made from the client's perspective might be longer due to network latency.

Example entry

70

Turn-Around Time

The number of milliseconds that Lightsail spent processing your request. This value is measured from the time the last byte of your request was received until the time the first byte of the response was sent.

Example entry

10

Referer

The value of the HTTP Referer header, if present. HTTP user-agents (for example, browsers) typically set this header to the URL of the linking or embedding page when making a request.

Example entry

"http://www.amazon.com/webservices"

User-Agent

The value of the HTTP User-Agent header.

Example entry

"curl/7.15.1"

Version Id

The version ID of the object being copied or - if the x-amz-copy-source header didn’t specify a versionId parameter as part of the copy source.

Example entry

3HL4kqtJvjVBH40Nrjfkd

Host Id

The x-amz-id-2 or Lightsail extended request ID.

Example entry

s9lzHYrFp76ZVxRcpX9+5cjAnEH2ROuNkd2BHfIa6UkFVdtjf5mKR3/eTPFvsiP/XV/VLi31234=

Signature Version

The signature version, SigV2 or SigV4, that was used to authenticate the request or a - for unauthenticated requests.

Example entry

SigV2

Cipher Suite

The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cipher that was negotiated for HTTPS request or a - for HTTP.

Example entry

ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256

Authentication Type

The type of request authentication used, AuthHeader for authentication headers, QueryString for query string (presigned URL) or a - for unauthenticated requests.

Example entry

AuthHeader

Host Header

The endpoint used to connect to Lightsail.

Example entry

s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com

TLS version

The Transport Layer Security (TLS) version negotiated by the client. The value is one of following: TLSv1, TLSv1.1, TLSv1.2; or - if TLS wasn't used.

Example entry

TLSv1.2

Custom access log information

You can include custom information to be stored in the access log record for a request. To do this, add a custom query-string parameter to the URL for the request. Lightsail ignores query-string parameters that begin with "x-", but includes those parameters in the access log record for the request, as part of the Request-URI field of the log record.

For example, a GET request for "s3.amazonaws.com/awsexamplebucket1/photos/2019/08/puppy.jpg?x-user=johndoe" works the same as the request for "s3.amazonaws.com/awsexamplebucket1/photos/2019/08/puppy.jpg", except that the "x-user=johndoe" string is included in the Request-URI field for the associated log record. This functionality is available in the REST interface only.

Programming considerations for extensible access log format

Occasionally we might extend the access log record format by adding new fields to the end of each line. Therefore, you should write any code that parses access logs to handle trailing fields that it might not understand.

Managing buckets and objects in Lightsail

These are the general steps to manage your Lightsail object storage bucket:

  1. Learn about objects and buckets in the Amazon Lightsail object storage service. For more information, see Object storage in Amazon Lightsail.

  2. Learn about the names that you can give your buckets in Amazon Lightsail. For more information, see Bucket naming rules in Amazon Lightsail.

  3. Get started with the Lightsail object storage service by creating a bucket. For more information, see Creating buckets in Amazon Lightsail.

  4. Learn about security best practices for buckets and the access permissions that you can configure for your bucket. You can make all objects in your bucket public or private, or you can choose to make individual objects public. You can also grant access to your bucket by creating access keys, attaching instances to your bucket, and granting access to other AWS accounts. For more information, see Security Best Practices for Amazon Lightsail object storage and Understanding bucket permissions in Amazon Lightsail.

    After learning about bucket access permissions, see the following guides to grant access to your bucket:

  5. Learn how to enable access logging for your bucket, and how to use access logs to audit the security of your bucket. For more information, see the following guides.

  6. Create an IAM policy that grants a user the ability to manage a bucket in Lightsail. For more information, see IAM policy to manage buckets in Amazon Lightsail.

  7. Learn about the way that objects in your bucket are labeled and identified. For more information, see Understanding object key names in Amazon Lightsail.

  8. Learn how to upload files and manage objects in your buckets. For more information, see the following guides.

  9. Enable object versioning to preserve, retrieve, and restore every version of every object stored in your bucket. For more information, see Enabling and suspending object versioning in a bucket in Amazon Lightsail.

  10. After enabling object versioning, you can restore previous versions of objects in your bucket. For more information, see Restoring previous versions of objects in a bucket in Amazon Lightsail.

  11. Monitor the utilization of your bucket. For more information, see Viewing metrics for your bucket in Amazon Lightsail.

  12. Configure an alarm for bucket metrics to be notified when the utilization of your bucket crosses a threshold. For more information, see Creating bucket metric alarms in Amazon Lightsail.

  13. Change the storage plan of your bucket if it's running low on storage and network transfer. For more information, see Changing the plan of your bucket in Amazon Lightsail.

  14. Learn how to connect your bucket to other resources. For more information, see the following tutorials.

  15. Delete your bucket if you're no longer using it. For more information, see Deleting buckets in Amazon Lightsail.